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Understanding MiCA and Its Impact on EU Crypto Asset Regulations

The primary objective of Markets in Crypto Assets (MiCA) is to create a united regulatory framework for crypto-asset markets within the European Union.

Claudia Fischer



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The EU has introduced the Markets in Crypto Assets (MiCA) framework to regulate and oversee the fast-growing crypto asset market. Originally proposed in 2019, MiCA represents a move towards standardizing the regulation of crypto assets in the EU, setting the stage for other major jurisdictions to follow suit. In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the key aspects of MiCA, its impact on different crypto asset types, and the reactions it has gathered from the public and industry players.

MiCA: An Overview

The primary objective of Markets in Crypto Assets (MiCA) is to create a united regulatory framework for crypto-asset markets within the European Union. Doing so provides much-needed clarity and stability to an industry marked by rapid innovation and evolution. The framework seeks to achieve this by establishing consistent rules and requirements that crypto asset issuers and service providers must adhere to.

Types of Assets Covered by MiCA

MiCA encompasses three categories of crypto assets:

  1. Asset-Referenced Tokens (ARTs):

These cryptographic tokens can be exchanged and value pegged to various assets, including fiat currencies, physical assets, cryptocurrencies, or a combination thereof. An example is a token backed by gold.

  • Electronic Money Tokens (EMTs):

EMTs are cryptographic tokens pegged to a single fiat currency and used for exchange. A typical example is a stablecoin pegged to the US dollar (USD).

  • Utility Tokens:

MiCA also covers a broader category of other crypto assets not covered by existing EU law, known as utility tokens.

Key Points of MiCA

The MiCA regulation transforms the EU’s crypto-asset market, requiring entities involved in issuing, exchanging, or managing crypto-assets to meet certain registration and authorization standards. 

For the issuance of Asset-Referenced Tokens (ARTs) and Electronic Money Tokens (EMTs), issuers are required to gain authorization from National Competent Authorities (NCAs). Additionally, issuers must publish a detailed crypto-asset whitepaper to provide transparency and information to potential investors. Particularly for EMT issuers, compliance with the E-Money Directive (2009/110/EC) is mandatory, ensuring a uniform approach across the EU.

key points of mica

Issuers of ARTs valued over €100 million must submit quarterly reports, maintain a separate asset reserve, and have a recovery plan for the orderly redemption of ARTs. MiCA also emphasizes the importance of custody and redemption policies. The mandate requires secure custody and ensures permanent redemption rights for ART holders, allowing anytime redemption

The regulation establishes a strict market abuse framework, requiring firms to use systems that monitor and prevent market manipulation, strengthening the crypto-asset sector’s integrity.

MiCA significantly emphasizes collecting and sharing transaction information by crypto-asset service providers. This is a crucial step in combating money laundering and financing of terrorism.

Effective Date of MiCA

MiCA was formally signed into law by the EU in May 2023 and came into force in June 2023. However, various components and rules will be phased in gradually, with full operational implementation expected by the end of 2024 or extending into January 2025. Technical standards and guidelines for compliance will be developed by the European Banking Authority (EBA) and European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) in consultation with industry stakeholders.

Public Reaction

The MiCA framework has received mixed responses from the crypto community: some praise its equitable approach for digital asset firms, but others criticize its limited scope, especially its lack of provisions for decentralized finance (DeFi), staking, and NFTs, leading to anticipation of an expanded MiCA 2.0 in the future.

Binance CEO Changpeng Zhao supports complying with MiCA, seeing it as practical for industry challenges. Meanwhile, Elizabeth McCaul from the ECB’s board thinks MiCA might fall short for large crypto entities, advocating for more oversight and stricter rules, particularly highlighting the need for tougher requirements for major Crypto Asset Service Providers (CASPs).


 MiCA represents a significant milestone in the EU’s efforts to regulate the crypto asset market. While it brings much-needed clarity and oversight, it also faces challenges in keeping up with the evolving crypto landscape. As the framework continues to evolve, it will likely set the stage for further developments in the global regulation of crypto assets.

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